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1. Daito-ryu Aiki-jujustsu (from Yamamoto Kakuyoshi)
The techniques of Daito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu were originated by the founder of the Kai Gengi Takeda clan, Shinra-Saburo Yoshimitsu, and completed by Takeda Sokaku, who was also responsible for its popularization. Looking at the art written transmissions as well as the techniques themselves, it is clear that there were secret techniques present from the ancient past, but these were added to and perfected by Takeda Sokaku, who traveled all over Japan and absorbed many other martial arts to add to his own. Aside from Jujutsu, he also studied Kenjutsu (swordsmanship), including Nitou-ryu (double-sword style) and Ittou-ryu ( a single-sword style), and was said to be a great swordsman. Daitou-ryu is said to contain 2,884 techniques, forward and reverse, but this is not included on the style license certificates. Indeed, the sum total of those which are listed doesn reach 1,000, much less 3,000.
Takeda Sokaku died in Itoho in Aomori, his last disciple being Yamamoto Kakuyoshi. Yamamoto real name was Tomekichi, but he took two characters from his teacher Takeda Sokaku Minamotono-Masayoshi name to become Yamamoto Kakuyoshi. At present, disciples of Takeda Sokaku in Japan number more than 30,000.
2. Araki Shin-ryu-jujutsu (from Okura Chugo)
The style Araki Shin-ryu-jujutsu was founded by Araki Takezaemon Hisakatsu, who lived at the time in Bushu, (now Hachioji). It contains 81 grappling/locking techniques as well staff and break-out techniques, and was named Araki Shin-ryu-jutsu in 1626. There had been a style called Araki existant for a long time, which is why the style was called Araki Shin (New)-ryu-jutsu. In fact, it was rumored that Araki Takezaemon Hisakatsu was the descendent of Araki-ryu founder, Araki Muninzai Yoshitsuna, but this is not certain. The style was practiced in Shin Hatta in Echigo, and thrived there until recently.
My father Sato Kinbei great grandfather, Ookawara Shoemon (Shohei), studied in Shin Hatta under Iida Shimetaro, and earned his license. After Shoemon passed away, my father received the secret scrolls of the style and a cherished sword of camellia wood that had belonged to Shoemon from his great-aunt, Ookawara Hidejo. After that, thinking to revive Araki Shin-ryu, my father traveled to Shin Hatta, looking for news of it. Fortunately, he met Okura Chugo there, the inheritor of the style, and invited him to Sendai, where he received instruction from him. Reportedly, Okura had learned Araki Shin-ryu from a young age, and, after learning the Chinese classics, traveled to Tokyo to study. Later on he studied with Sugiura Juugou, eventually becoming the head of the school.
3. Itten Ryushin Tyuukai-ryu (from Ono Soukichi)
Itten Ryushin Tyuukai-ryu is an amalgamation art of three styles, Isshin-ryu (from Sakuma Katusuke), Ryushin Tyuukai-ryu (from Miura Yoshiemon), and Tenshin Shin Yo-ryu (from Iso Mataemon). Ono Sokichi first learned Isshin Jujutsu, then went to Tokyo and studied Tenshin Shin Yo-ryu from Yoshida Tiharu, after which he returned to his hometown of Iwanuma, and taught Jujutsu while working as a bone-setter. Ono took the best parts from each style and founded his own combination style, calling it Itten Ryushin Tyuukai-ryu, taking characters from each style to make up the new name. My father was living in Iwanuma around 1953-4, and learned the art from its beginning from Ono, later receiving the written transmissions of the art to become the second generation in its lineage.
4.Tenshin Shin Yo-ryu Jujutsu (from Miyamoto Hanzo)
Tenshin Shin Yo-ryu Jujutsu began when Iso Mataemon Masatari (called Yanagi Kansai) mastered the arts of Yoshin-ryu and Shinshinto-ryu. Supposedly, during the time of his wanderings around the different provinces of Japan, he became involved in a fight with more than 100 thugs (Yakuza), at which time he came to a sudden understanding of the nature of atemi (striking) which later formed the basis for his combination of the two arts he knew into Tenshin Shin Yo-ryu. He defined 124 techniques, then traveled to Edo, where opened up a dojo in Otama-ga-ike in Kanda. This was the beginning of the art. Kodokan Judo was founded by Kanogi goro, a teacher who emphasized randori, or free-sparring practice and a student of the third generation of the Iso family lineage Iso Msatomo.
My father learned from Miyamoto Hanzo, who gained his license in the art after studying under Inoue Keitaro and Yoshida Chiharu; because the Iso family line came to an end, it was Miyamoto who became responsible for carrying on the style as the 5th generation lineage holder. My father also received teaching in the style from Ono Sokichi of Ooshu Iwanuma, who learned Jujutsu and bone-setting from Yoshida Chiharu. Also, Inoue Takeo, the grandson of Inoue Keitaro, asked for some instruction in the art from my father during World War II when he was evacuated to Sendai.
5. Yagyu Shingan-ryu Heijutsu (from Suzuki Sensaku)
Yagyu Shingan-ryu Heijutsu is said to have begun from Takenaga Hayato (who lived around the 18th century). Takenaga was born in Sendai, and traveled to Edo after learning many different arts, where he worked and trained as an inner student of Yagyu . After returning home, he added his own elements to what he had learned and called the new art that he taught his students Yagyu Shingan-ryu (Hoshi Katsuo has done more detailed research on this). Sato Kinbei belongs to Hoshi Sadakichi (1821~1898) branch of the style. Hoshi Sadakichi was born in the village of Nitta, Kuribara county in Miyagi Prefecture, and studied martial arts in his hometown in Satake Yuuzaburo and in Sanuma dojo. Later, he traveled around different provinces, researching different styles and finally coming to study and master Shingan-ryu under Kato Gonzo of Dewa. Hoshi achieved mastery of the style and, adding his own previous knowledge and research foundation, later taught many disciples; for this he is known as the art greatest propagator. The lineage to Sato Kinbei is as follows:
Hoshi Sadakichi ( Takahashi Hikokichi (Suzuki Heikichi (Suzuki Sensaku ( Sato Kinbei, and Hoshi Sadakichi ( Takahashi Hikokichi ( Kato Hikokichi ( Suzuki Sensaku ( Sato Kinbei. And, at present, from Sato Kinbei to
Sato Shigeru, Tadano Masataka, Komachi Mikio, Yamada Minoru, Jibiki Hidemine, Dei Akio, Morita Tsuyoshi, Ito Hidekata, Onizawa Zennsuke, Kunii Tadashi, Usui Makoto, Ishii Toshi, Takahashi Shinji, Horimai Hideo, Sato Toshiyuki, Suzuki Hitoshi, Shima Takashige, Kuwayama Hirochika, and Kato Satoshi (not in order).
Yagyu Shingan-ryu is now being widely practiced in Sakocho Iida in Tomai Province, Miyagi Prefecture under Hoshi Seiichi. In Sendai, Sato Kinbei disciple Tadano Masataka is teaching it along with Chinese martial arts under shihan Sato Shigeru. Near Sendai, in Taga Jo City, shihans Shouji Shoji, and Miyagi under shihan Suzuki Hitoshi are all spreading the art through teaching at the budokan. In Tokyo, Sato Kinbei has been teaching it for the 33 years he has been in Tokyo along with other traditional Japanese martial arts, medicine, and Chinese martial arts. At Sato KinbeiÕs school, Shingan-ryu is taught to all those studying Chinese martial arts.
It was 1950 when my father Sato Kinbei received his license to teach Yagyu Shingan-ryu, just after he returned from the war in China. According to him, Yagyu Shingan-ryu is different from other forms of Jujutsu in terms of its practicality on the field of battle and its unrivaled fierceness and ability to kill the enemy. It is said that the experienced practitioner can shatter an enemy arm with one blow.
6. Asayama Ichiden-ryu Taijutsu (from Ueno Takashi)
Asayama Ichiden-ryu was founded by Asayama Sangoro Ichiden as solely an atemi (striking) and gyakute (reversal) art. There are many different branches in different parts of the country, each with their own characteristics. It is also said that it is an art that had been practiced solely in the fief of Keizu , and indeed it does share many forms in common with Daitou-ryu Aiki Jujutsu, also from Keizuban.
Sato Kinbei learned Asayama Ichiden-ryu from the 16th generation lineage holder Ueno Takashi, and in December of 1955 became the 17th generation lineage holder of the line. Aside from gyakute Jujustsu, the art also contains jujutsu, a rare reversal art utilizing a short wooden pole 37 cm or 25 cm in length. The art is learned first bare-handed, but its techniques may also apparently be used with a steel fan.
Sato Kinbei learned also Tenshin-ryu and Bokuden-ryu from Ueno, and taught him as well different arts which he knew in a fruitful exchange. He was introduced to Ueno by the expert on traditional martial arts Takamatsu Sumisuke, who lived in Nara. It was through this relationship that Hatsumi Yoshiaki of Noda, who has recently helped give rise to a Ninja Boom, first studied under Ueno and later under Takamatsu Sumisuke, whom Sato Kinbei introduced him to, afterward coming to be called the leader of Togakure-ryu Ninjutsu. Ueno Takashi has already passed away, his disciples Kaminaga Nariyoshi and Kobayashi Minetaka actively teaching in Funabashi, Chiba Prefecture. A historical study about Asayama Ichiden-ryu, have been collected in An Encyclopedia of Martial Arts Styles by Wataya Yuki and Yamada Tadashi.
8. Takeda-ryu Aiki-no-Justsu (from Ooba Ichio)
Aiki-no-Jutsu claims Yamato Takeru-no-Mikoto and Takeda-no-Kimi as its patron deities, and Shinrasaburo Yoshimitsu, progenitor of the Kai Gengi Clan, as its founder. Finally, its techniques were systematized by Takeru Gatame. Shinrasaburo Yoshimitsu came from the distinguished family of Seiwa Gengi. Together with his older brother, Hachimantaro Yoshiie, he came to study under Oe Masafusa, where he learned military tactics and martial arts. He was an accomplished artist as well, and was said to have been one of the most educated and cultured men of his day. Yoshimitsu was also said to have been the only person to transmit certain secret songs for the flute.
One time, Yoshimitsu went to his brother Yoshiie in Oshu to give him aid when he heard that he was losing in a war he was fighting. After three years there, Yoshimitsu, who also knew something of medicine, had the opportunity to perform an autopsy on a fallen soldier, which allowed him to gain an understanding of the structure of joints in the human body and allowing him to delineate more clearly the principles behind locks and reversals. It is also said that he began the transmission of Aiki-no-Ri when he witnessed a silk spider trap a small bird in its web, a sight which caused him to gain enlightenment of the principles of aiki (blending/harmonizing energy).
Yoshimitsu son was Takeda Nobutora, but he did not teach the art to him, for one time Nobutora was being chased by Takeda Shingen and ran to Imagawa Yoshimoto of Sunpu for help; instead he passed the art on to Takeda Kouzukenosuke-Nobutomo (Osai). The Takeda family perished at Tenmokusan mountain, and Takeda Osai became a guest of Ishida Mitsunari, who was defeated and captured at the battle of Sekigahara. Mitsunari had entrusted the care of Osai to an elder of the fief of Kuroda on the island of Kyushu, resulting in Takeda-ryu techniques being passed down in Kuroda. Nakamura Okichi was a famous practitioner in this line, who taught such students as Miyagawa Ikkan, Nakano Shogou, Uchida Ryohei, Matsuaga Setsu, and Ooba Ichio, all of whom were fervent right-wing supporters. These students also learned Kodokan Judo, and all achieved the high rank of 5th or 6th dan. Because of support from a man named Tooyama Mitsuru, who was called he don of the right wing, the person who succeeded Okichi in the lineage line was Ooba Ichio from Meji University, at that time the youngest 5th dan holder in Japan. Ooba under guidance from Tooyama, participated in the Indonesian independence movement before World War II, engaging in such activities as sheltering fighters for the Indonesian cause. One student of Ooba was the Pro Wrestling star Rikidozan, who learned a spread-finger aiki chop. The samurai movie star Azuma Chiyosuke and the actor Takakura Ken were both favorite disciples.
9. Kageyama-ryu Kenjutsu (from Miyazaki Umsyu)
Kageyama-ryu is an Iai-Kenjutsu founded by Kageyama Zenga Nyuudou Kiyoshige, who lived in Tanba Koku Yagi-Gun and was according to legend a descendant of the deity Sasu-no-O-no-Mikoto. The style stayed in the fief of Sendai, and was brought to Tokyo by the 20th generation in the line, Miyazaki Unsyu, who opened up a dojo in Tamagawa Gakuen, Machida-shi. My father began learning from him in 1959. About of the Different Kinds of Chinese Martial Arts Sato Kinbei has Learned
8. Ba-Ji Chuan (from Zhang Zhong)
Ba-Ji Chuan has been passed down for a long time in the Meng Village near Cang City in Henan Province. In this style there was a figure called apear-God Li, (Shen Qiang Li) whose real name was Li Shu Ren, who cme from Meng Village. Li Shu Ren is said to have learned Ba-Ji Chuan and Pi Gua Chuan from Jin Mou, and in turn taught Ma Ying Tu, known for the Six Harmony Great Spear, and Xu Lan Zhou, both of whom who later went on to become famous. Zhang Zhong was the nephew of Xu Lan Zhou. Ba-Ji Chuan is a powerful, hard style of kung fu. My father to meet with Zhang Zhong often to learn the art.
2. Ba Gua Zhang (from Li Zi Ming and Pei Xi Rong)
Ba Gua Zhang was founded by Dong Hai Chuan, who lived 1797 ~ 1882. The names Kai (Sea), and later Kai Chuan (Sea-river) were taken by Dong at some point in his life, and were not his original names. He was born in Henan Province, in the village of Zhu Jia Wu, 25 li from the larger city of Wen An. He excelled at martial arts from a young age, learning many different kinds of arts and weapons. He is said to have had a dynamic, exuberant personality, and to have valued highly righteousness and justice. Dong traveled different lands searching out skilled teachers until finally he came to Jiu Hua mountain in An Hui Province. There he met Hua Cheng Xia (elder of Gong Lian), who is also sometimes called the hermit Yu Pan. Dong Hai Chuan studied with Hua for eight years, and when they parted he was told, In my art, the turning palm constitutes form, and the various techniques constitute use. Perfect this and none under heaven will stand against you. Use what I taught only for virtue. Dong Hai Chuan soon perfected the techniques he had learned from Hua. He is also said to have learned from his teacherÕs friend, Guo Yuan Ji, and. Finally, Dong met Fu Yi Shi, who taught him the I Ching eight trigrams and sixty-four outcomes (8 X 8 = 64). On this model Dong invented the 64 forms of Ba Gua Zhang, which can be combined in infinite variation. Dong Hai Chuan most loved the Yin-Yang Claw, and never lost a match with it. He named his new art laying-Body Eight Trigram Consecutive Palm, and went to Beijing to teach it.
In Beijing, he was seen by Su Qin Wang and picked out to serve in the Su Wang government by teaching and serving on the Royal Guard, beginning with Su Qin Wang himself. Dong attained high position within the government, becoming a respected and sought-after teacher. Some of his more famous pupils include Cheng Ting Hua, Liang Zhen Pu, Ma Wei Si, Liu Feng Chun, Zong Yong Xiang, Zong Chang Rong, and Yin Fu. Li Cun Yi and Zhang Zhan Kui, famous practictioners of Hsing I Chuan, were also students of DongÕs. DongÕs disciples were in general accomplished martial artists when they came to him, and so for each he crafted a new style of Ba Gua Zhang suited to that studentÕs abilities and to the characteristics of the art he already knew. Dong lived until 1882, dying at the age of eighty-five. He was buried outside the East Gate in Beijing with four stone markers at his grave site, on which his accomplishments and the names of his highest disciples were engraved. This grave site, however, was destroyed by the Red Army in the Great Cultural Revolution. It was rebuilt in 1982 in the western suburb of Peking, Xi Jiao to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Dong death by the Ba Gua Zhang lineage holders Li Zi Ming, Pei Xi Rong, Zhou Zun Fo, and Sha Guo Zheng.
Ba Gua Zhang is ChinaÕs newest major martial art. It uses the open palm, not the fist, and it derives its theoretical grounding from the I Ching. The Ba Gua Zhang practitioner walks on a circle on which the Yin/Yang symbol is inscribed, performing eight different palm changes, or forms, which are then broken down into eight techniques each, thus conforming to the 8 X 8 = 64 pattern of the I Ching. The body of the Ba Gua Zhang practitioner is likened to a dragonÕs body for the supple, sinuous quality of motion it takes on and for the light, evasive foot-work and quick changes of direction that are required, mastery of all of which is said to require many years of training. Ba Gua Zhang also has several unique weapons, such as the Deer-Horned Knives. In the arts written transmissions are Dong Hai Chuan 36 Songs and 48 Verses, which are so cryptic that interpretations of them by his disciples are also passed down. My father has translated them into Japanese, but says that they are difficult to understand without knowledge of the I Ching, Chinese Medicine, and Taoism.
The first style of Ba Gua Zhang that my father learned was Cheng Ting Hua style, which was taught to him by Wang Shu Jin, who received it from Chen Pan-Ling, and which included the 8 Palms and the Double Sword. Later, he learned an older form of Cheng style from Zhou Zu Fo in Beijing, the forms of which are slightly different. He also learned the Yin Fu style Palms, Double-Headed Spear, Straight Sword, and Broadsword. From Pei Xi Rong he learned the 64 Partner Excercises and Liu style Ba Gua Zhang. Finally, my father came studied under Li Zi Ming, Chairman of the Beijing Ba Gua Zhang Research Society. From Li he learned Liang Zhen Pu Ba Bua Palms and weapons, received the oral transmissions, and became a 4th generation lineage holder of Ba Gua Zhang. Lineages are shown below:
Dong Hai Chuan ( Cheng Ting Hua ( Cheng Hai ___ ( Chen Pan-Ling FWang Shu Jin ( Sato Kinbei and Dong Hai Chuan ( Liang Zhen Pu (2nd generation lineage holder)( Li Zi Ming (3rd generation lineage holder) ( Sato Kinbei (4th generation lineage holder) and Dong Hai Chuan ( Yin Fu ( Yin Yu Zhang ( Pei Xi Rong ( Sato Kinbei and Dong Hai Chuan ( Yin Fu ( Zhang Yi Zhong ( Sato Kinbei
4. Tai Chi Chuan
The main styles of Tai Chi Chuan are Chen, Yang, Wu, and Sun. The Wu and Sun styles branched off of Yang style, and Yang off of Chen style, making the Chen style the ancestor of all styles of Tai Chi Chuan. Thus it is said that Tai Chi history, techniques, and theory may not be discussed without including a discussion of the Chen style. The following description of Tai Chi and its history is based on the on obervations and history about the art given by the famous Chinese martial arts historian Tang Hao (1897~1959) in his book The Development and Sources of Tai Chi Chuan.
Tai Chi Chuan is said to have been founded by Chen Wang Ting, a general living at the end of the Ming dynasty and the 9th generation descendant of the Chen family in Chen Village, Henan Province. At the end of his career the Ming Dynasty was dying, giving way to the Qing, so Chen, who was aging at the time, retired to the study of martial arts. He studied the various arts of the time, and created a new art based on his studies modeled after the principles of the I-Ching, which he called Tai Chi Chuan (Grand Ultimate Boxing, after the Taoist principle of the Grand Ultimate). Chen Wang Ting adopted for Tai Chi twenty-nine out of the thirty-two postures given in the Boxing Scriptures section of the Ji Jiao New Book, a book compiled three hundred years before ChenÕs time by the famous Qi Ji Guang, skilled in the art of battle, for use by his soldiers in their war against the Wo Kou.
Special thanks for Zachary San